Tuesday, January 1, 2013

Jerusalem WS lecture notes: 01. Introduction to LCDM Cosmology

I'll be posting my lecture notes from Jerusalem winter school during the next several days. It's easier to link things up here.
Introduction to LCDM Cosmology by J. Primack, .pdf here.
J. Primack, with collaborators, created the LCDM model as we know it -- and gave an amazing historical account of the topic.
  • dark matter particle discovery in the next few years
  • Zwicky 1937, 'on the masses of nebulae and clusters of nebulae' -- huge amount of mass is necessary to bind galaxy clusters together
  • Rubin 1970: M31 rotation curve
  • Einasto 1974
  • Faber 1979
  • Zeldovich HDM: light neutrinos make up the DM, galaxy formation is top-down, from fragmentation
  • mixmaster Universe [Misner], explosions [Ostriker]
  • 'Giant voids in the Universe', Zeldovich, Einasto
  • Pagel, Primack 1982, R-parity, gravitino, SUSY DM
  • 'if you're looking for a good problem, understand galaxies' -- R. Feynman
  • Cooling theory: groups & clusters can't cool, because cooling is too inefficient
  • Zeldovich spectrum
  • "The Seven Samurai"
  • 1997: start of precision cosmology (WMAP, etc)
  • 46 Gly
  • Double dark theory
  • 1st CMB peak at 1 deg: space is flat
  • 5 independent measures show that 4% of the Universe is made of baryons
  • 'imagine that the entire Universe is an ocean of dark energy. on that ocean sail billions of ghostly ships made of dark matter. we only see the beacons on the tops of the highest ships'
  • Millenium simulation parameters are 4-5\sigma away from observations, due to WMAP1 parameters
  • Bolshoi, BigBolshoi, AREPO simulations
  • Baryonic mass-velocity relation
  • how is the mass assembly related to star formation?
  • Most-efficient star formation mass range [cooling]:
    • Massive galaxies: started SF early, shut down early, are red today, live in dark haloes that are much more massive than their stellar mass.
    • Small galaxies: started SF late, are blue, DH masses are comparable to stellar masses.
    • "Downsizing": star formation is a wave that started in the largest galaxies and swept down to smaller masses later.
  • DM detection: catch it, infer it, make it, weigh it [CDMS, LHC, Fermi, cluster X-ray observation, Planck/Hershel]
  • detector sensitivity increased by 3 orders of magnitude in 5 years, XENON 1000
  • Donation of an unused US spy satellite might allow restarting WFIRST

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